Piper Tomahawk AD List

This is Page 1. - 78-22-01 to 82-02-01
Go to Page 2. - 82-27-08 to 93-19-04
Go to Page 3. - 95-93-02 to 98-03-16

	78-22-01 Rudder-Elevator Binding.
	To prevent possible binding of the rudder or elevator in flight.
	 (a) For S/N 38-78A0001 to 215, 217 to 226. Before further flight, and at intervals thereafter not to exceed
	     25 hours, inspect for proper clearance between the rudder leading edge and fin trailing edge and
	     repair in accordance with  SB 607 or 607A of May 19,1978, and June 2,1978.
	 (b) Within the next 50 hrs, install kit# 763872 Rudder Leading Edge Modification.
	     The inspections required by (a) are then not needed.
	 (c) For S/N 38-78A0001 to 400. Within the next 50 hrs, inspect and repair
	     the elevator leading edge as per Part II, SB 607A of June 2,1978. 
	78-23-04 Rear WIng Spar. S/N 38-78A0001, 005-016, 018-039, 042-130, 132-212, 214-233, 235-270, 272-324, 326-329,
	 331, 333-356, 358-372, 374, 375, 377-385, 387-399, 401-410, 413, 415, 416, 418-421, 424-426, 428, 429, 431, 432, 434,
	 435, 437-439, 441-443, 445, 446, 449-455, 457-466, 468, 469, 471, 472, 474, 475, 477, 478, 480, 481, 483, 484, 486,
	 489, 490, 492-494, 496-498, 500-502, 504-506, 509, 510, 512-526, 528-532, 534, 535, 537, 538, 540, 541, 544, 546-548,
	 550, 552, 555, 556, 558, 559, 561, 565, 567, 568, 570, 573, 574, 576, 578, 581, 584, 585, 587, 588, 606, 622.
	 To prevent weakening of the wing rear spar to fuselage attach fitting connection do to missing rivits.
	 (a) Within the next 10 hrs, do steps 1 to 4 of SB 618 of Sept 5,1978. 
	78-23-09 Control Wheels.S/N 38-78A0004 to 016, 018-040, 042-224, 226-232, 234-236, 238-250, 252-266, 268,
	 270-273, 276, 277, 279-284, 286-289, 291, 298, 315-318, 324, 326 and 329.
	 To prevent possible separation of the control wheel from the control shaft.
	 Before further flight, inspect and alter or replace both control wheels as per SB 609 of June 17,1978.

	78-25-01 Slick Magnetos. O-235-L2C engines. To prevent engine stoppage caused by failure
	 of condensers installed in the Slick 40xx series magnetos.
	 (a) Prior to further flight, Slick 40xx series magnetos with less then 75 hours must have Models 4050, 4051, 4052,
	     or 4081 replaced with Models 4150, 4151, 4152, or 4181 magnetos having S/N 8100001 and up, or equal.
	 (b) Slick 40xx series magnetos with 75 hours or more must be replaced within the next 50 hrs.

	78-25-05 Brackett Air Inlet Filters See 81-15-03

	78-26-06 Verticle Fin Attach Plate. S/N 38-78A0001 to 652, 653, 655, 656, 658, 660, 661, 664 to 672,
	 674, 676, 677, 680 to 682, 686, 690, 693, 701, 702, 708, 711, 717, 723, 729, 734 and 749.
	 To avoid possible hazards in flight associated with a crack in the vertical fin forward spar attachment plate.
	 Within the next 5 hours,
	 (a) Remove the dorsal fin fairing P/N 77607-02 and inspect the forward bend radius of the vertical fin forward
	     spar attachment plate P/N 77553-5 for cracks using a dye penetrant inspection method.
	 (b) If a cracked plate is found, replace with an undamaged part of the same part number before further flight.
	79-01-07 Engine Mount. See 81-23-07

	79-03-02 Rudder Hinge Kit 763881. Piper SB 613 S/N 38-78A0001 to 80A0063.
	 To prevent vertical movement of the bottom rudder hinge bearing and possible
	 interference between the bottom surface of the rudder fairing tip and the vertical fin top surface.
	 (a) Within the next 25 hours,
	   (1) Deflect the rudder so that the bottom hinge is accessible.
	   (2) Inspect the bottom hinge bracket for a loose bearing which will be evident by any
	       portion of the bearing outer-race protruding below the lower surface of the bracket.
	   (3) If a loose bearing is found, install Kit# 763881 before further flight.
	 (b) Within 50 hrs, install the kit per SB 613. 

	79-08-02 Stabilizer Mounting Bracket. To check for a crack in the stabilizer pulley bracket mounting fitting
	  P/N 77615-07 or improperly torqued stabilizer to fin or fin to fuselage attaching bolts.
	 (a) S/N 38-78A0001 to 040, 042-592, 594, 596, 598-620, 622-658, 660-714, 716-721, 723-735, 737-740, 742, 743,
	 745-766, 768-778, 780-784, 787-811, 813, 814, 816, 818, 820, 821, 829, 844,
	 79A-0003-005, 007, 008, 010-014, 017-030, 033-036, 038-041, 043-047, 049-078, 080-089, 092, 093, 095, 097-099,
	 101-110, 112-114, 116, 119-121, 123-128, 130-132, 135-137, 139, 140, 142-148, 150-165, 167, 168, 170, 172-175,
	 177, 179-181, 184-189, 191-197, 199, 200, 204-206, 208-212, 214, 216, 217, 220-222, 226, 229-231, 234-236, 238,
	 240, 242, 246, 248, 250, 253, 259, 271-273, 277, 301, 307-312.
	 Within the next ten hours.
	  1. Remove the dorsal fin forward fairing P/N 77606-03 and inspect the edges of the stabilizer pulley bracket
	     mounting fitting P/N 77615-07 at the bend radius for cracks using a dye penetrant inspection method.
	  2. Report positive findings including crack length from paragraph (a) inspection to
	     Chief, Engineering and Manufacturing Branch, FAA, Eastern Region within ten days of inspection.
	  3. If the fitting is cracked, replace with an undamaged part of the same part number before further flight.
	(b) Serial Nos. 38-78A0001 through 38-79A0254. Within the next 100 hours.
	  1. Disconnect rudder cables from rudder, remove lower rudder hinge bolt and displace
	     rudder to gain access to rear spar attachment bolts.
	  2. Remove lower vertical fin fairing, upper vertical fin fairing, upper vertical fin
	     inspection panel and lower aft vertical fin inspection panel.
	  3. Using a calibrated torque wrench, check the torque of each of (18) stabilizer to fin and fin to fuselage attach bolts
	     and tighten as required to 90-110 in-lbs. Torque value given takes into account friction drag torque. Piper SB 637

	79-13-08 Airborne Vacuum Pump Installed after May 15,1979
		  Airborne P/N and S/N
		   211 CC	5E9318 to 5E9347, 5E9407 to 5E11419
		   211 CC-9	5E616 to 5E715
		   211 CC TR	5E1264 to 5E1406
		   212 CW		5E3403 to 5E4197, 5E9129E to 5E9131E
		   212 CW-6	5E9 to 5E25
		   242 CW-4	5E8 to 5E11
		   CC		5E332 to 5E401, 5E450 to 5E483
		   441 CC-7	5E911 to 5E981
		   441 CC-9	5E75 to 5E80
		   441 CC-11	5E4
		   441 CC-13	5E7 to 5E12
		   441 CC-17	5E106 to 5E116
		   442 CW		5E926 to 5E1023
		   442 CW-4	5E137 to 5E149
		   442 CW-6	5E765 to 5E785
		   442 CW-8	5E114
		   442 CW-12	5E431 to 5E435
	 These pumps were not available before May 15,1979 so pumps installed before then are exempt from this AD.
	 Compliance is required prior to next flight. To prevent loss of the vacuum system remove above listed pumps
	 from service and replace with an airworthy pump of the same part number. An airworthy pump is one which has
	 a serial number not listed above or if listed above also has an "A" or "2" ink stamped by the manufacturer
	 with black ink on the periphery of the body near the mounting flange.
	 See Airborne Service Letter 22A of June 5,1979 for disposition of the bad pumps.

	79-17-05 Instrument Ground Wire. S/N 38-78A0002-027, 029-037, 039-041, 043, 045-064, 066-072, 074-104.
	 a. To prevent the occurrence of insufficient or intermittent grounding of the fuel gauges and engine instrument cluster.
	    Within the next 25 hours, install ground wire harness assembly P/N 77960-400 and connect leads to instruments and
	    terminal ground strip in accordance with SB 603.
	80-06-05 Magneto Impulse Coupling SLICK ELECTRO,INC. Applies to the following Slick magneto models.
		MODEL NO. (1) SERIAL NO. (1) (2) NO. (1)
		447 & 447R 	9040001 thru 9040049 M2374
		4152 & 4152R 	9020017 thru 9070000 M1709
		4181 & 4181R 	9020017 thru 9070000 M1709
		4201 & 4201R 	9020210 thru 9070000 M3007
		4251 & 4251R 	9030001 thru 9070000 M3163
		4281 & 4281R 	9030001 thru 9070000 M3007
		4230 & 4230R 	9040001 thru 9040197 M3068

	 (1) Any of the units listed were manufactured subsequent to January 1979.
	 (2) Any magneto serial numbers between and including the lower and upper limits as shown are affected by this AD.
	 (3) These coupling numbers are for parts used as spares and also must be tested. M2371, M3100, & M3165
	  To prevent a possible magneto failure and subsequent engine or accessory malfunction,
	  Within the next 10 hours or 30 days,do the following comparative hardness test procedures:
	  1. Remove the impulse coupling magneto(s) from the engine.
	  2. Remove the impulse coupling assembly from the magneto frame.
	  3. Establish a reference level of acceptable metal hardness by sliding a fine cut mill file over the flat
	     surface of either pawl. The file will slide freely and will only burnish the hard surface of the pawl.
	  4. By a similar filing action, test the hardness of the two rivet heads.
	  5. If there is resistance to sliding and material is removed from the rivet head, the rivet has not been heat treated
	     and the coupling assembly must be replaced. Return the defective coupling assembly to a Slick Electro distributor.
	  6. If hardness of the rivet heads and pawls are equivalent, reassemble and identify AD compliance by
	     metal stamping a letter "C" on the Slick insignia located on the side of the magneto identification plate.
	  7. If the results of the comparative hardness test on the rivet(s) are questionable, the coupling assembly
	     must be replaced.

	80-11-02 Rudder Upper Hinge See 80-22-13

	80-11-09 Landing Gear Bolts  See 90-19-03

	80-22-01 Rudder Upper Hinge See 80-22-13

	80-22-13 Rudder Upper Hinge S/N 38-78A0001-099, 113, 120 and 123-165.
	    To inspect for a crack in the rudder upper hinge P/N 77610-02.
	(a) Within the next 5 hours and then at intervals not to exceed 50 hours,remove the rudder upper hinge pin
	    and carefully displace the rudder from the fin aft to expose the surfaces of the rudder upper hinge.
	    The rudder upper hinge consists of two brackets, P/N 77610-02. Inspect all the hinge surfaces in the
	    area of the hinge pin hole to the forward edge of the hinge for cracks using a dye check inspection
	    method or an equivalent. Upper hinge bolt is to be installed with a torque of 50 to 70 in. lb.;
	    do not exceed the maximum value.
	(b) If a cracked bracket is found, replace before flight with a part of the same part number
	    or an equivalent, which have been inspected in accordance with (a).
	(c) Within the next 100 hours replace brackets, P/N 77610-02, with two steel rudder upper hinge brackets,
	    Piper P/N 77610-03 in accordance with  SB 686 of May 23,1980. Upon compliance with this paragraph,
	    the inspections required in paragraph (a) may be discontinued.
	(d) The steel upper rudder hinge P/N 77610-03 must be replaced within 5000 hours time in service.
	(e) Chief, Engineering and Manufacturing Branch, FAA, Eastern Region may adjust the compliance times
	    specified in this AD.
	(f) Equivalent parts, instructions and inspections must be approved by the Chief, Engineering and
	    Manufacturing Branch, FAA, Eastern Region.
	(g) Report findings of cracked parts to the Chief, Engineering and Manufacturing Branch, FAA, Eastern
	    Region, within 5 days of the inspection: include the time on the part, and aircraft serial No.
	    This supersedes AD Number 80-11-02 issued by letter dated May 16,1980.
	80-25-02 Lycoming Push Rods O-235 engines S/N L-12500-15 thru L-20676-15, all reman O-235 engines,
	   regardless of S/N shipped between Dec 10,1976, and Nov 8,1979, and all O-235 regardless of S/N that
	   had pushrods replaced between Dec 10,1976, and November 24,1980.
	   This AD does not apply to O-235 engines with pushrods P/N 73806, identified by revision letter K or
	   subsequent revision letter, or by code T-T, -85 or the symbol # as described in Lycoming SB 453 or
	   a subsequent approved revision. Compliance with this AD is also required by the following engine
	   serial numbers which were previously exempt by Emergency Airworthiness Directive 80-25-02 R1:
	      L-15619   16333   17291   17644   18054   18055   18073   18074   18141   18142   18207   18208
		18502   18503   18601   18948 to 18951  19028 to 19031  19145 to 19149  19766 to 19768
		19990 to 19997  19999   20155 to 20158  20172 to 20176  20242 to 20246  20323 to 20327
		20384 to 20389          20428 to 20432  20460 to 20464  20523 to 20527  20609 to 20612
	   To prevent failures of engine pushrods,
	 (1) Before further flight, Inspect all Pushrods loose ball ends and evidence of bulging and splitting of the
	     pushrod tubing. Measure the length of the Pushrod. The overall length shall not be less than 11 17/32 inches.
	     If the parts are satisfactory, set valve clearances as per Paragraph 8 of Lycoming SB 1388A
	     of Jan 25,1980, and 1068A of Sept 1,1978. Replace any Pushrod that is not satisfactory.
	 (2) Within 25 hours and every 25 hours thereafter, measure and record Valve Tappet clearances as per Lycoming
	     SB 1388A and 1068A. If any valve clearance increases more than .015 inch since the last 25 hour inspection,
	     remove the pushrod and inspect for damage and shortening in accordance with Item 1 above.
	 (3) The 25 hour repetitive inspection may be discontinued upon installation of Pushrods P/N 73806 which have
	     been identified by one of the codes specified in this AD.

	80-25-07 Stewart Warner Oil Cooler
		Model #	   S/N   to  S/N
		8406J	  12558	  16212
		8406L	   1496	   1763
		8432K	    514	    541
		8432L	    631	    964
		10568C	   1105	   1141
		10578B	   2212	   2316
		10599A	   7369	   9013
		10610A	   1815	   1956
		10614A	    732	    947
		10622A	    333	    394
		10634D	    105	    907
		8446C	    372	    629
		8437C	    422	    472
		10641B	    101	    162
		8493B	   1269	   1603
	NOTE: The affected oil coolers were manufactured between July 1,1979, and Nov 1,1980.
	 Oil coolers of the above model and serial numbers that have a date ink stamped next to the nameplate have been
	inspected by Stewart-Warner and found satisfactory for continued use.
	Compliance is required prior to further flight. To prevent the loss of engine oil.
	1. If the oil cooler has accumulated 10 hours or less total time since new, prior to further
	   flight, replace with an airworthy oil cooler not of the above serial numbers or with an airworthy oil cooler o
	   of the above serial numbers that have a date ink stamped next to the oil cooler name plate.
	2. If the oil cooler has accumulated more than 10 hours time in service since new, visually inspect the
	   cooler for oil leakage prior to further flight. Removal of the engine cowling is not required if it 
	   can be positively determined from inspection of areas adjacent to the oil cooler that the oil cooler is not leaking.
	A. If oil leakage is evident, prior to further flight, replace with an airworthy oil cooler not of the
	above serial numbers or with an airworthy oil cooler of the above serial numbers that have a date ink stamped next
	to the oil cooler name plate.
	B. If oil leakage is not detected:
	i. Fabricate and install the following placard on the aircraft instrument panel in plain view
	of the crew, using letters 1/8-inch high minimum:
	"Visually check oil cooler for leakage prior to each flight. 
	If leakage is detected, refer to AD Number 80-25-07."
	NOTE: The owner or operator may make and install this 
	placard and conduct the preflight check.
	This check does not require a logbook entry. The inspection 
	procedures identified in the note following paragraph 2
	also apply to this preflight check.
	ii. If the oil cooler is replaced with an airworthy oil 
	cooler not of the above serial numbers
	or with an airworthy oil cooler of the above serial numbers 
	that have a date ink stamped next to the oil cooler name
	plate, the placard can be removed.

	81-04-07 Forward Fin Spar Attachment Plate See 82-27-08
	81-15-03 Brackett Air Inlet Filters
	 To prevent possible failure of the aluminum air filter retainer screen or gaskets with potential ingestion of the
	 screen, filter element and/or gasket particles into the carburetor throat, do the following:
	 (a) Within 25 hours, inspect aircraft equipped with the Brackett Aircraft engine inlet air filters, to determine,
	   (1) whether the air filter retainer screen is aluminum or steel, and
	   (2) whether or not certain air filter frames incorporate a gasket retainer. Brackett filter assemblies
	       PN BA100, BA2310, BA5710, BA7110, BA7210, BA7310, BA7410 and BA7510 must have a gasket retainer.
	       The gasket retainer may be a gasket retainer strip kit installed in as per Brackett SB 5, of July 28,1980,
	       or an extruded lip which is 1/32 inch high and an integral part of the filter frame furnished by Brackett.
	 NOTE: The aluminum air filter retainer screen can be identified by any one of the following:
	 The screen has diamond shaped mesh with openings 1-3/4 inch x 3/4 inch; aluminum screen is not magnetic;
	 the date of manufacture was ink stamped on each retainer and may still be legible. Only retainers dated August 1978
	 and earlier have aluminum mesh screen.
	 The steel retainer screen can be identified by any one of the following:
	 The screen is 1/8 inch diamond mesh; the screen is magnetic; date of manufacture is ink stamped on each retainer
	 and may still be legible. Retainers dated Sept 1978 and later have steel mesh screen.
	 (b) A determination that the air filter retainer screen is steel and that a gasket retainer is incorporated in
	     the filter frame constitutes terminating action for this AD.
	 (c) Upon determination that the retainer screen is aluminum, visually inspect the aluminum retainer assembly for
	     cracks or failed areas.
	   (1) If cracks or failed areas are found, replace the aluminum retainer screen assembly with a steel screen assembly
	       kit in accordance with Brackett SB 3, Rev 1 od Mar 1,1979 or No. 6, Rev 1 of June 29,1981, as applicable.
	       Each model air filter requires that a different Brackett kit be installed to comply with this AD.
	   (2) If cracks or failed areas are not found, the air filter assembly may be temporarily returned to service.
	       Remove retainers with aluminum screen from service prior to the accumulation of 100 hours additional time.
	 (d) After the inspection required in Paragraph (a) and upon determination that a gasket retainer is not incorporated
	     in the filter retainer, prior to 25 additional hours of service, install gasket retainer strips in accordance with
	     Brackett SB 5 of July 28,1980.
	 This supersedes AD 78-25-05. This amendment becomes effective July 20, 1981.

	81-16-05 Magneto Coils Applies to the following Slick Magneto models and serial numbers:
	  Magneto Model's  4250, 4250R, 4251, 4251R, 4216, 4216R, 4230, 4230R, 4252, 4252R, 4201, 4201R, 4281, 4281R,
	  *All 4200 series magnetos use Slick Coil part number M-3114
	  Serial Numbers**
	  8100000-8109999   9050000-9059999   9110000-9119999
	  8110000-8119999   9060000-9069999   9120000-9129999
	  8120000-8129999   9070000-9079999   0010000-0019999
	  9010000-9019999   9080000-9089999   0020000-0029999
	  9020000-9029999   9090000-9099999   0030000-0039999
	  9030000-9039999   9100000-9109999   0040000-0049999
	  **Year and month of manufacture is given by first three numbers of serial number;
	  for example 9032576 was manufactured March 1979.
	  To prevent magneto failure due to cracked coil, do the following within the next 25 hours.
	   A. Remove magneto and visually inspect coil for cracks in accordance with SB 1-81 revised June 29, 1981.
	   B. Replace cracked coils and coils with less than 250 hours with serviceable coils manufactured prior to
	      Oct 1,1978, or after April 30,1980. The date of manufacture is stamped on each coil.
	   C. Accomplishment of this AD should be indicated by stamping the letter "C" into the metal name plate
	      following the last digit of the magneto serial number, as well as the appropriate logbook entry.

	81-18-04 Oil Pump Impeller See 96-09-10

	81-23-07 Motor Mount S/N 38-78A0001 thru 38-78A0678 except aircraft with  engine mount assembly
	    P/N 77651-02. To prevent  possible nose-gear failure due to weakening of the engine-mount.
	(a) On aircraft modified as per S/B 617 of Oct 12,1978, with less than 950 hours in service since
	    the modification, inspect and replace, if required, the engine mount within the next 50 hours
	    in accordance with Piper S/B 617B dated Jan 13,1981, Instructions Paragraph 3 or equivalent.
	    Repeat inspection at intervals not over 50 hours until 1000 hours in service from modification
	    or until replacement of the engine mount with engine mount assembly P/N 77651-02. Replacement
	    engine mount P/N 77651-02 must be installed prior to 1000 hours in service on the modified mount.
	(b) On aircraft modified in accordance with Piper S/B 617 dated Oct 12,1978, with 950 or more hours
	    since the modification, within the next 50 hours, replace the engine mount with P/N 77651-02.
	(c) On aircraft which have not been modified in accordance with S/B 617, within the next 50 hours,
	    replace the engine mount with engine mount assembly P/N 77651-02.
	(d) Alternative inspections and alterations which provide an equivalent level of
	    safety may be used when approved by the Chief, Engineering and Manufacturing
	    Branch, FAA, Eastern Region.
	(e) This amendment supersedes AD 79-01-07. 

	82-02-01 Aileron Kit 761140. Piper SB 723. S/N 38-78A0001 to 81A0051 and 105 except aircraft with
	    Aileron Balance Weight Rib Reinforcement Kit, Part No. 764140.
	    To look for cracks in the Aileron Balance Weight Rib P/N's 77342-16 and -17.
	    Within the next 100 hours, and thereafter at intervals not over 100 hours,
	 (a) Remove the aircraft wing tips and aileron balance weights.
	 (b) Using a minimum 10 power magnifier, inspect the aileron balance weight rib flange
	     area for cracks.
	 (c) If no cracks are found, reinstall the balance weights and wing tips.
	 (d) If cracks are found, replace the cracked ribs with undamaged ribs of the same part
	     numbers and incorporate Aileron Balance Weight Rib Reinforcement Kit P/N 764140.
	 (e) Upon the incorporation of Aileron Balance Weight Rib Reinforcement Kit, P/N 764140,
	     the repetitive inspection required by this AD may be discontinued.
	     SB 723 of Aug 19,1981, refers to this subject.  	

Go to Page 2

AOPA and other reports on the Tomahawk Stall/spin controversy
----- AOPA Air Safety Report Feb. 1997 ---- Follow-up article ----- NTSB wants new Spin Tests

Search Tail Numbers------ FAA Regs - AD's etc.------ NTSB Accident Reports
Sport Flyer.com ------ Engine/Prop Info------ Aviation Weather------ AirSpace Class

Click to email Bob with and comments or additions to this page

The End 04-18-2k
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The FAA's Small Aircraft Directorate tells us that recently some airplane flight tests were to be performed using a Piper PA-38 Tomahawk which was mftd 19 years ago; this airplane had an annual inspection three months before the scheduled flight tests. While establishing conformity of the airplane for this series of tests, there were three major discrepancies noted. #1. A bulkhead had been installed, in the field, via a service bulletin, but the number of rivets specified in the service bulletin was not used (three had been left out). #2. The elevators had cracks in the trailing edge which had been stop drilled and a weld applied as well as automobile putty. #3. The rudder cable tension was found to be 15 pounds less than the specified value, well outside the specified tolerance. It should be clear that if a component is signed off in the logbook as having been installed per a specific document, then it should be done to all the requirements of the document or good reason presented for any deviations. With rivets missing, this bulkhead may not have been able to perform its intended function. Likewise, any control surface which has damage should be either repaired or replaced, as specified in the manufacturer's maintenance manual, or an analysis from an acceptable source such as a DER should be presented to confirm that the control surface is in balance, still meets strength requirements, etc. The cable tension is another highly important item. This airplane model is approved for spins and, in fact, is currently used for spin training. With the rudder tension less than specified, rudder deflection under flight loads will be less than specified. As a result, spin entry and especially recovery may be affected. The entry could be different from that expected and/or the recovery may take longer; worse case, it could result in no recovery. Since this airplane was procured from a normally reliable source, it is believed to be representative of the type of maintenance which many of these older and perhaps some newer airplanes receive. Also since this airplane is representative of many airplanes manufactured by different companies and used in the training environment, care should be exercised to ensure that all manufacturer's maintenance procedures are accomplished. It must also be noted that the aircraft owner is responsible to ensure that the proper maintenance is performed. It cannot be emphasized too highly that airplanes, especially those used in training and/or rental, have the proper maintenance performed to achieve the expected performance.